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Wilson Quarterly: The Once and Future Russia
Wilson Quarterly The Once and Future Russia Author:Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars selected essays — Achilles in the White House — Two of Lyndon Johnson's closest aides, Harry McPherson and Jack Valenti, recalled the White House years at a Wilson Center Director's Forum last fall. — Russia's Moral Rearmament — by Nina Tumarkin — The Future That Never Was — by Alexei Pimenov — The Revised LBJ — by Lewis L. Gould — The American presidenc... more »y--America itself--has never been the same since Lyndon Baines Johnson assumed the office in November 1963. Here a historian details the emerging revisionist view of his presidency.
The Two Worlds of Vladimir Putin: Leningrad
by Blair A. Ruble
The Two Worlds of Vladimir Putin: The KGB
by Amy Knight
by Michael McFaul
by Colton Johnson
William Butler Yeats took to the radio in the 1930s with poetry that he hoped would sound a public theme and stir the public interest.
America's Ignorant Voters
by Michael Schudson
This year's election is sure to bring more lamentations about voter apathy. No less striking is the appalling political ignorance of the American electorate.
Democracy without Farmers
by Victor Davis Hanson
The family farm in America has all but vanished, and with it we are losing centuries of social and civic wisdom imparted by the agrarian life.
TocqueviIIe in the 21st Century
A Survey of Recent Articles lie Karl Marx has fallen sharply on the intellectual stock exchange in recent years, Alexis de Tocqueville has dra- matically risen. To mark the 10th anniver- sary of the Journal of Democracy (Jan. 2000), the editors invited 23 thinkers to address themes from Tocqueville's classic Democ- racy in America (1835-40), in light of the tumultuous century just past. Tocqueville did not foresee communist totalitarianism, observes historian Martin Malia, author of The So...
Do Negative Ads Really Hurt?
Richard R. Lan et al.; "Do Negative Campaigns Mobilize or Suppress Turnout? Clarifying the Relationship between Negativity and Participation" Kim Fridkin Kahn and Patrick J. Kenney; "Negative Campaign Advertising: Demobilizer or Mobilizer?" by Martin P. Wattenberg and Craig Leonard Brians; and "Replicating Experiments Using Aggregate and Survey Data: Thc Case of Negative Advertising and Turnout" by Stephen D. Ansolabehere et al., in American Political Science Review...
The Embarrassing Second Amendment
Chris Mooney, in Lingua Franca (Feb. 2000), 22 W. 38th St., New York, N.Y. 10018 Against their own liberal political inclina- amendment, reports Mooney, a freelance tions, some legal scholars have reluctantly writer based in New Orleans. Alluding to concluded that in its claim that the Second this scholarship, a federal district court Amendment protects individual Americans' judge in Texas last year "delivered an right to bear arms, the National Rifle unprecedented ruling in defense of the...
Wading into Colombia's War
T. Carl Bogus, a professor at Roger Williams University School of Law in Rhode Island: that the Second Amendment was largely intended to give the slave-owning southern states tacit assurance that the new government would never try to disarm the South's militias. "Legal scholars who support the individ- ual-rights view are not exactly quaking in their boots" at the challenge from Wills, Cornell, and the rest, observes Mooney. But if the Standard Model should prevail in the courts, does...
The Globalization Fantasy
the FARC. Despite that overture, notes Kitfield, the insurgent force launched its largest offensive ever in July, seiz- ing 15 villages and coming within 30 miles of the capital, Bogota. In November came anoth- er FARC offensive, against 13 more towns. "Colombia is one of the most violent coun- tries in the world," observe Gabriel Marcella, vho teaches strategy at the Army War College, and Donald a scientist at Sch~~lz, political Cleveland State University, writing in Strategic Review...
Defending Land Mines
exports as a percentage of gross domestic product, is about what it was in 1910. "What is true of trade also holds for capital flows, again as a percentage of GDP." The United States and other nations with big economies still do most business at home, and virtually all multinational corporations are "firmly anchored in their home bases." The American way is in vogue today, but it would be rash "to conclude from a decade's experience that the one best model has at last appeared,"...
Europe's Jobless Blues
James K. Galbraith, Pedro Coneeiqfio, and Pedro Ferreira, in New Left Review (Sept.-Oct. 1999), 6 Meard St., London W1V 3HR, England. Most economists blame Europe's stub-bornly high unemployment rates on rigid wage laws and generous welfare states that discourage workers from looking hard for jobs. They point to the example of the United States, with fewer government protections, more income inequality-and a four percent unemployment rate when the new year began. France's jobless rate, in c...
Jonathan Morcluch, in Joun~ulof Economic Literature (Dec. 1999), American Economic Assn., 2014 Broadway, Stc. 305, Nashville, Tenn. 37203. Around the world, particularly in Bangla- such as "group-lending" contracts. Pioneered desh, Indonesia, and Bolivia, "n~icrofinance" Bangladesh's Granieen Bank, these con- institutions have sprung up in recent decades tracts effectively make a borrower's neighbors to make small, usu...
When Life Begins
Gregg Easterbrook, in The New Republic (Jan.31, 2000), 1220 19th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. When the Supreme Court decided Roe v. Wade in 1973, medical knowledge about the fetus was surprisingly limited. But that has changed in recent years, and what researchers have learned, argues Easterbrook, a senior edi- tor at the New Republic, has important impli- cations that neither pro-life nor pro-choice absolutists are likely to welcon~e. The pro-life view, of course, is that life begins w...
Race and Remembrance
The floral University Perhaps the most difficult task facing the university today is fulfilling its obligation "to advance, transmit, and invigorate moral knowledge," says W. Robert Connor, director of the National Humanities Center, writing in Ideas (1999: No. 1). If moral knowledge exists, then surely it is subject to rational evaluation and, like any) other knowledge, can be transmitted from one person, or one generation, to another. If moral action in some degree depends on moral...
Message to the Future
Lester A. Reingold, in American Heritage (Nov. 1999), Forbes Building, 60 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10011. For centuries, humans have carefully stashed artifacts in cornerstones and other secure spots. In the seventh century B.c., for example, King Esarhaddon of Assyria deposited relics and inscriptions of baked clay in the foundations of his monuments. But the time capsule is a distinctly modern and distinctly American invention, explains Reingold, a writer in Washington, D.C. One key characteristic o...
Hurrah for Big Media!
Randy Thornhill and Craig T. Palmer, in The Sciences (Jan.-Feb. 2000), New York Academy of Sciences, Two E. 63rd St., New York, N.Y. 10021. What makes the rapist different from other men is not his sexual desire but his lust for power over women, an unnatural urge born of a sick society in which females are regarded with fear and contempt. That's what many feminists and social scientists believe these days, but it's dangerously misleading, say Thornhill, an evolutionary biologist at the University...
What Makes a Rapist?
in which females are regarded with fear and contempt. That's what many feminists and social scientists believe these days, but it's dangerously misleading, say Thornhill, an evolutionary biologist at the University of New Mexico, in Albuquerque, and Palmer, an evolutionary anthropologist at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Rape, they argue, "is, in its very essence, a sexual act [which] has evolved over millennia of human history." The two authors disagree about rape's...
The Rise of Neopaganism
a William Allen White, there's a Manchester Union Leader piloted a William Loeb," he says. And small, inde- pendently owned newspapers "routinely pull punches when covering local car dealers, real estate, and industry, to whom they are in deep hock.' Despite their many shortcomings, only big media have "the means to consistently hold big business and big government acco~~nt- able," Shafer observes. In the 1980s, when Exxon, upset at the Wall Street Journal's cov- erage, threatened...
Never on Sunday?
Gallup and other organiza- tions paint a different picture, Bishop points out. Gallup surveys in 1981 and 1990, for instance, indicate that about two-thirds of Americans believe in "a personal God," while about one-fourth believe in "some sort of spirit or life force." National Opinion Research Center (NORC) surveys show a decline in the percentage of Americans who are absolutely certain of God's existence, from 77 percent in 1964 to 63 percent in 1981 -a figure that has remained...
The Transformation of Bioethics
modern medicine and to give patients more say, bioethics seems to be flourishing today. It's a required subject in medical schools, a mandatory feature in hospitals, a frequent attraction in the media; degrees and certifi- cates are awarded in it; centers, departments, and government commissions, as well as pro- fessional organizations and journals, are devoted to it. Attending physicians in hospi- tals can now ask bioethics "consultants" to help critically ill patients or their families...
Maglev 's New Promise
highly publicized medical controversies such as the Karen Ann Quinlan case of the 1970s, infamous medical abuses (such as the T~iskegee syphilis study), and by dramatic medical advances. Yet at its origins, bioethics did move more in the higher realms of philosophy and the- ology. According to Warren Thomas Reich, a bioethicist at Georgetown University's Kennedy Institute of Ethics, writing in the Ken71edy Institute of Ethics Journal (Mar. 1999), much of the energy infused into bioethics three...
Nuclear Power Lives!
l, costly cryogenic equipment is required on the train cars. "The German maglev uses conventional electromagnets rather than superconducting ones, but the system is inherently unstable because it is based on magnetic attraction rather than repulsion," Post says. In both systems, a malfunction "could lead to a sudden loss of levitation while the train is moving." Minimizing that hazard means increased "cost and complexity." The Livermore approach uses permanent room-temperature...
The Culture Totem
"What We Talk about When We Talk about Culture" Matthew Greenfield, in Raritan (Fall 1999), Rutgers Univ., 31 Mine St., New Brunswick, N.J. 08903. For many in the tribe of literary critics, cultural studies is now the rage. The very word culture has taken on high totemic sta- tus, with "an almost magical power to confer authority and assuage anxiety," notes Greenfield, an English instructor at Bowdoin College, in Brunswick, Maine. "Merely to pronounce the word expands...
In Deepest Beethoven
individuals." Ironically, as literary critics have turned to anthropology for ideas and (as they hope) the prestige of science, many anthropologists, Greenfield observes, have been moving away from science and remaking their discipline ". in the image of literary criticism-as an interpretive practice." Prominent anthropologists, he says, now suggest that the concept of culture "may have outlived its usefulness." Many, conscious of how imperialist powers and other...
Mencken 's Masterwork
the philosopher Imnnan- uel Kant. Favoring "a kind of artistic self-abnega- tion," says Tymoczko, Kant suggested "that the arts might present the sublime nega- tively, expressing their own inade-quacy. . . . By portraying human limita- tions, and [implying] that there is some- thing beyond them, these works inspire a kind of religious awe." In Beethoven's works, Tymoczko finds "a number of curious passages where [his] music seems to question itself, as if chal- lenging...
Africa's New Slave Trade
John Eibner, in Middle East Quarterly (Dec. 1999), 1500 Walnut St., Ste. 1050, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102-3523; and "The False Promise of Slave Redemption" Richard Minitcr, in The Atlantic Monthly (July 1999), 77 N.Washington St., Boston, Mass. 021 14. Slavery survives today in Mauritania (see to return to their homes. But the slave raids WQ, Winter '98, p. 140) and Sudan, Africa's in Sudan continue. largest country. Indeed, chattel slavery, CSI has run into criticism, not only from which...
Welfare-to-Work in Canada
Charles Michalopoulos, Philip K. Robins, David E. Card, and Gordon Berlin, in Focus (Fall 1999), 1180 Observatory Dr., 3412 Social Science Bldg., Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, Wis. 53706. Eight years ago, amid criticism that its gen- erous welfare and unemployment insurance programs were encouraging people to avoid work, Canada launched an experiment called the Self-Sufficiency Project in two provinces to see if temporary earnings sup- plements would entice welfare recipients into finding j...
Latin Democracy's Struggle
"Is Latin America Doomed to Failure?" Peter Hakim, in Foreign 'Policy (Winter 1999-2000), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1779 Massachusetts Ave., N.W, Washington, D.C. 20036. ?? The January coup in Ecuador was only the 1 he average rate of inflation soon plummeted, latest indication that Latin America is not liv- from more than 450 percent to hardly more ing up to the high hopes entertained by than 10 percent today. "Almost overnight, democrats and free-market enthusiasts...
A Swedish Imperfection
iocre economic performance is only part of the problem, Hakim says. Few of the democratic governments "are governing well." In most countries, basic democratic institutions-courts, legislatures, political parties, even the presidency-are weak, and in some cases, "barely work at all." Education is neglected: Only one in three Latin American children attends secondary school. Virtually every city "is far more vio- lent ancl dangerous than it was a dozen years ago," Hakim...
by Nathan Glazer
n the New Yorker in 1996, Malcolm Gladwell published "The Tipping Point," an article about the surprising drop in New York City's crime rate. The article attracted a good deal of attention and inspired this book, which he calls "the history of an idea." The idea of the tipping point originated in discussions of racial change in the early 1970s.In schools where the number of black students is increasing slowly and steadily, for example, there may come a point at...
by Lee Alan Dugatkin
never get a plane trip," a psy- chologist colleague of mine lament- ed. "Once people hear what I do, they proceed to tell me their theories of human behavior. Chemists must have relaxing plane rides-no one has his own theory of stereoscopic chemistry, but everyone thinks he is an expert in psychology." I imagine this observation is doubly true for some branches of psy- chology. Who, for instance, doesn't have ideas about why we fall in and out of love? That's one reason David Bu...
CARDANO'S COSMOS: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer
by Laura Ackerman Smoller
TRIALS OF INTIMACY: Love and Loss in the Beecher-Tilton Scandal
by Patricia Cline Cohen
LOST REVOLUTIONS: The South in the 1950s
by Patricia Sullivan
HENRY JAMES: A Life in Letters
by Alex Zwerdling
THE GREAT AMERICAN THING: Modern Art and National Identity, 1915- 1935
by Martha Bayles
BLOOMSBURY AND FRANCE: Art and Friends
by Amy Schwartz
BRUCE CHATWIN: A Biography
by Rebecca A. Clay
THE HEART IS A LITTLE TO THE LEFT: Essays on Public Morality
by Mark Silk
DIVERSITY AND DISTRUST: Civic Education in a Multicultural Democracy
by William A. Galston
OF TWO MINDS: The Growing Disorder in American Psychiatry
by Peter D. Kramer
RAILWAYS AND THE VICTORIAN IMAGINATION
by Edward Tenner
THE BABY BOON:How Family-Friendly America Cheats the Childless
by Florence King
WILD MINDS: What Animals Really Think
by Elizabeth Marshall Thomas
THE NATURE OF ECONOMIES
by David Warsh
WHAT PRICE FAME?
by A. J. Hewat
? By Tyler Cowen. ~arvard Univ. Press. 256 pp. $22 Two years ago, Cowen, a young economist fron~ George Mason University, marched into the cultural minefield arguing that capitalism fosters great art. In Praise of Commercial Cul- ture was an energetic paean to the free market as well as a show-and-tell of the author's erudi- tion; from the Greeks to Rodchenko to Skinny Puppy, there wasn't much Cowen hadn't stum- bled upon. Asking everyone to join him at the table, lefties and neocons alike, he...« less