Word for Word The Rewriting of Fiction Author:Wallace Hildick A study of authors' alterations. From the introduction: — "Physically, an author makes only three kinds of alterations: he substitutes, he deletes and he inserts. But when the intention behind each change is taken into account we find a much wider range of groups and subdivisions. — "One of the largest groups is that consisting of the tidying-... more »up of changes that every author makes: correcting mis-spelt words and grammatical lapses; refining punctuation; recasting awkward constructions; removing redundancies, cliches and unwanted repetitions; and suppressing jingles (as, for example, George Eliot had to do when, in Middlemarch, she found she had written: "'What is it, dear?' said Dorothea, with dread in her head."), unintentional puns and the sort of double entendre that at best could disrupt the mood of a passage and at worst damage the author's moral reputation."
With examples from the manuscripts of George Eliot, D. H. Lawrence, Samuel Butler, Thomas Hardy, Henry James, and Virginia Woolf.« less