Search - List of Books by C. Lloyd Morgan

Conwy Lloyd Morgan, FRS (6 February 1852 - 6 March 1936) was a British psychologist. He is best remembered for the experimental approach to animal psychology now known as "Morgan's canon".

Lloyd Morgan was born in London and studied at the Royal School of Mines and subsequently under T. H. Huxley. He taught in Cape Town, but in 1884 joined the staff of the then University College, Bristol as Professor of Geology and Zoology, and carried out some research of local interest in those fields. But he quickly became interested in the field he called "mental evolution", the borderland between intelligence and instinct, and in 1901 moved to become the college's first Professor of Psychology and Education.

As a specialised form of Occam's razor, Morgan's canon played a critical role in the growth of behaviourism in twentieth century academic psychology. The canon states In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher mental faculty, if it can be interpreted as the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale. For example, an entity should only be considered conscious if there is no other explanation for its behaviour. As the study of animal cognition has become popular, a disciplined use of Lloyd Morgan's canon has become important.

The development of Morgan's canon derived partly from his careful observations of behaviour, which provided convincing examples of cases where behaviour that seemed to imply higher mental processes could in fact be explained by simple trial and error learning (what we would now call operant conditioning). An example is the skilful way in which his terrier Tony opened the garden gate, easily understood as an insightful act by someone seeing the final behaviour. Lloyd Morgan, however, had watched and recorded the series of approximations by which the dog had gradually learned the response, and could demonstrate that no insight was required to explain it.

As well as his scientific work, Lloyd Morgan was active in academic administration. He became Principal of the University College, Bristol, in 1891 and consequently played a central role in the campaign to secure it full university status. In 1909, when, with the award of a Royal Charter, the college became the University of Bristol, he was appointed as its first Vice-Chancellor, an office he held for a year before deciding to become Professor of Psychology and Ethics until his retirement in 1919. He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1926 to 1927. He died in Hastings.

Following retirement, Morgan delivered a series of Gifford Lectures at St. Andrews in 1921 and 1922. In them he helped develop the concept of emergent evolution.

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Total Books: 29
Animal Behaviour
2009 - Animal Behaviour (Paperback)Paperback, Hardcover
ISBN-13: 9781117406886
ISBN-10: 1117406881
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Spencer's Philosophy of Science the Herbert Spencer Lecture Delivered at the Museum 7 November
Animal Life and Intelligence
2009 - Animal Life and Intelligence (Paperback)Paperback, Hardcover
ISBN-13: 9781113619969
ISBN-10: 1113619961
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Emergent Evolution
2008 - Emergent Evolution (Hardcover)Paperback
ISBN-13: 9781443720670
ISBN-10: 1443720674
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Animal Sketches
2008 - Animal Sketches [1891] (Hardcover)Paperback
ISBN-13: 9780548985854
ISBN-10: 0548985855
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The Springs Of Conduct
2008 - The Springs of Conduct [1892] (Hardcover)Paperback, Hardcover
ISBN-13: 9781436531085
ISBN-10: 143653108X
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The Interpretation Of Nature
2007 - The Interpretation of Nature (Hardcover)Paperback
ISBN-13: 9780548037362
ISBN-10: 0548037361
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Habit And Instinct
2007 - Habit and Instinct (Hardcover)Paperback, Hardcover
ISBN-13: 9780548088388
ISBN-10: 0548088381
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An Introduction To Comparative Psychology
2007 - An Introduction to Comparative Psychology (Hardcover)Paperback
ISBN-13: 9780548089392
ISBN-10: 0548089396
Genre: Religion & Spirituality
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Psychology For Teachers
2007 - Psychology for Teachers (Hardcover)Paperback, Hardcover
ISBN-13: 9780548199107
ISBN-10: 0548199108
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1977 - An Introduction to Comparative Psychology the Limits of Animal Intelligence Two Works [Significant Contributions to the History of Psychology 1750-1920] (Hardcover)